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By C. L. Ghai

With the writing of the eighth version of this famous and well known publication on functional body structure, it has accomplished over 25 years of improvement. the scholars have regularly demanded simplicity, directness, and readability of expression that's inside their effortless take hold of. it's was hoping that the publication meets with their standards. The booklet conforms to the syllabi and classes mandated by way of the scientific and Dental Councils of India. As in step with their new curriculum coverage, the sections on Hematology, Human Experiments, and medical exam, were vastly accelerated and up to date and lots of new figures and diagrams additional. The part on Animal Experiments has been curtailed. The Appendix offers an unlimited quantity of Physiological facts. a brand new characteristic has been the inclusion of OSPEs (Objective dependent sensible Examinations) for assessing scholars’ ability in functional body structure examinations. intended essentially for MBBS, BDS, B. Ph-Th scholars, the booklet will end up beneficial to scholars of BSc and MSc (Physiology), BSc and MSc (Pharmacy), MD (Physiology) and people learning Human body structure in lifestyles Sciences faculties and Universities.

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Focusing Under High Power (450 x) a. For focusing under high magnification, simply rotate the nosepiece so that the HP lens clicks into position. Raise the condenser to mid-position and open the diaphragm to admit enough light. Use fine adjustment as required. b. If the lens system is not parfocal, look from the side and bring the lens down to about 1–2 mm above the slide. Now look into the microscope and raise the tube slowly and gently till the image comes into focus. between this objective and the glass slide when the lens is in focus.

Mode of action. Any substance that deionizes the blood calcium will prevent clotting. The negatively charged citrate ion is particularly useful for this purpose, usually in the form of sodium, ammonium, and potassium citrate. The citrate ion combines with calcium in the blood to form an unionized calcium compound. Citrated blood, citrate and blood in the ratio of 1:9, is used for coagulation studies, and for ESR test by 17 the Westergren method in the ratio of 1:3. Along with other components, sodium citrate is used for storing donated blood in blood banks (see Expt 1-18), since it can be safely given intravenously.

5 What are anticoagulants? What is meant by in vivo and in vitro anticoagulants? See page 17. 6 Why are the thumb and little finger not pricked for blood? See page 21. 7 What are the sites for collecting capillary blood in infants? See page 22. 8 Why should the pricked finger not be squeezed? What is meant by free-flowing blood and why should it be preferred over squeezed blood? Squeezing or pressing the finger contaminates blood with tissue fluid, (thus diluting the blood and giving low values), and epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

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