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By J. Miller

This booklet examines 3 examples of past due nineteenth-century eastern variations of Western literature: a biography of U.S. furnish recasting him as a eastern warrior, a Victorian novel reset as oral functionality, and an American melodrama redone as a serialized novel selling the reform of jap theater. Written from a comparative viewpoint, it argues that variation (hon'an) was once a sound type of modern jap translation that fostered artistic appropriation throughout many genres and between a various workforce of writers and artists. moreover, it invitations readers to reassess model within the context of translation concept.

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One of the most striking aspects of this illustration is the absence of the handshake. ) that famous event. Grant and the Emperor (with their spouses) face each other across the room. In the foreground Grant (dark on light background) and the Empress (light on shadowed background) reflect the contrasts between the United States (male, yang) and Japan (female, yin). Grant’s profile partly obscures that of his wife, and his slight bow suggests respectful deference. The Emperor retains a formal, reserved posture just behind the Empress, whose open arms and slight bow suggest warmth and openness.

Never before had such a high-ranking Western dignitary graced Japan’s shores, 24 S Adaptations of Western Literature in Meiji Japan and suitable hospitality was a major concern of government and municipal leaders. While the civil servants made their preparations for catering to Grant and his party’s physical needs, others prepared diversions and entertainments. Army officers drilled their troops in preparation for official inspection by the former general, a citizens’ group in Tokyo began planning a fête at Ueno Park (complete with fireworks and exotic ice cream), and the American expatriates in Tokyo made preparations for a Fourth of July reception.

Young’s images often eschew the binary (us-them) gaze of the colonizer, and even seem at times to elevate the poorest classes. In the above example the subject’s humanity remains somewhat intact, suggesting a “democratized” view of Japan. The second category, scenery, reflects the American preoccupation with space and wilderness. One-third of the illustrations are primarily landscape or urban scenery, and in addition to mirroring contemporary artistic conventions the illustrations also focus on the exotic aspects of Japanese landscapes: architectural elements, gardens, nature.

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