By Stephen H. Hall
A synergistic method of sign integrity for high-speed electronic layout
This ebook is designed to supply modern readers with an realizing of the rising high-speed sign integrity concerns which are developing roadblocks in electronic layout. Written by way of the key specialists at the topic, it leverages ideas and methods from non-related fields similar to utilized physics and microwave engineering and applies them to high-speed electronic design—creating the optimum blend among conception and functional functions.
Following an advent to the significance of sign integrity, bankruptcy assurance comprises:
- Electromagnetic basics for sign integrity
Transmission line basics
Non-ideal conductor versions, together with floor roughness and frequency-dependent inductance
Frequency-dependent houses of dielectrics
Mathematical specifications of actual channels
S-parameters for electronic engineers
Non-ideal go back paths and through resonance
I/O circuits and types
Modeling and budgeting of timing jitter and noise
process research utilizing reaction floor modeling
each one bankruptcy comprises many figures and various examples to assist readers relate the recommendations to daily layout and concludes with difficulties for readers to check their figuring out of the fabric. complex sign Integrity for High-Speed electronic Designs is appropriate as a textbook for graduate-level classes on sign integrity, for courses taught in for pro engineers, and as a reference for the high-speed electronic clothier.
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Extra resources for Advanced signal integrity for high-speed digital designs
Note that each point P (x,y,z), there exists a corresponding temperature T (x,y,z) or voltage v(x) at any instant in time. Other examples of scalar fields are pressure and density. A vector field has a variable magnitude and direction at any point in time, as illustrated with Figure 2-4. Note that the velocity and direction of the fluid inside the pipe changes in the vicinity of the neck-down region, so the magnitude and direction (phase) of the vectors that describe the motion of the fluid at a given instant in time are a function of the position in space.
If it is assumed that the region of wave propagation is source-free, the current density J is zero. Combining equations (2-6) and (2-9) yields the relation D = εr ε0 E = εE and allows the equation to be expressed only in terms of E: ∇ × (∇ × E) = −µε ∂ 2E ∂t 2 The formula can be simplified further by using the following vector identity (see Appendix A): ∇ × (∇ × E) = ∇(∇ · E) − ∇ 2 E Since we have assumed a source-free medium, the charge density is zero (ρ = 0), Gauss’s law reduces to ∇ · E = 0, yielding equation (2-27), which is known as the wave equation for the electric field : ∇ 2 E − µε ∂ 2E =0 ∂t 2 (2-27) Using the identical technique, the wave equation for the magnetic field can be derived: ∂ 2H (2-28) ∇ 2 H − εµ 2 = 0 ∂t Note that equations (2-27) and (2-28) are similar except that the order of multiplication of µε is reversed.
In fact, historically, scientists initially speculated that there was a magnetic charge analogous to the electric charge described earlier. However, experimental evidence suggests overwhelmingly that magnetic charges do not exist. Magnetic fields are not generated by the forces that magnetic charges exert on each other; rather, magnetic fields are generated by current loops. Similar to our description of the forces between charges in electrostatics, consider an isolated tiny current loop (l0 ) which will induce a magnetic field and behave like a small electromagnet.