By Herman L. Bennett
Полное название:"Africans in Colonial Mexico : absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole recognition, 1570–1640"
В этом исследовании, автор обнаружил много новой информации о жизни рабов и свободных чернокожих в Мексике и как их жизнь была регулированна правительством.
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Extra info for Africans in Colonial Mexico 1570–1640
While the Spaniards imported signi¤cant numbers of Africans during the ¤rst half of the seventeenth century, the demographic balance gradually shifted in favor of creoles and free mulattos. 63 Among the enslaved, there were twenty-one bozales and twenty creoles. 65 Six years later, however, enslaved mulattos ascended into the majority among the slave population while free mulattos rivaled and gradually eclipsed enslaved Africans as laborers. Despite new African arrivals, natural reproduction ensured that mulattos retained their primacy among Tehuantepec’s slave labor force.
From the beginning, New Spain’s slave society was porous, as Juan Garrido’s story and the following overview reveal. Though New Spain constituted a slave society, the experience of Africans, like all dependent relations within the colony, remained, within limitations, remarkably ®uid. The Structure of Slavery Soon after the siege and destruction of Tenochitlán, Spaniards realized that the wealth they could extract from the Nahuas consisted of tributary payments, in kind and in labor. 36 At the same time, the Spaniards initiated commercial ventures that tapped existing resources.
Even at the end of the colonial period, endogamy represented the norm among most indigenous persons in the central south and northwest. Such regions, in fact, recorded endogamy rates of 90 percent or more. Yet the ease with which indigenous persons could pass as mestizos and the proclivities of the clergy make marriage records a problematic though impressionistic source with regard to de¤nitional precision. Most persons of indigenous descent who formed liaisons or petitioned for a marriage license with non-Indians de¤ned themselves for pecuniary, if not other, reasons as mestizos or were characterized as such.