By Georges Roux
The publication presents an creation to the historical past of historic Mesopotamia and its civilizations, incorporating archaeological and old reveals as much as 1992.
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Extra resources for Ancient Iraq (3rd Edition)
How much it did so is a complex question which will recur again and again in this book. Scholars have often asserted, rather vaguely, that ancient cities were full of things to read,43 and there is some truth in this claim; but it must not lead us to the assumption that the majority of city-dwellers were able to read for themselves (they were all, however, in a position to learn what was written in public), still less to the assumption that they could write. It is also true that by the time of Gutenberg reading and writing had become far commoner than in the early Middle Ages,44 and literacy had risen far above its nadir of centuries before.
G. 20), who, however, does not provide circumstantial detail. Prodigious powers of recall became something of a commonplace in ethnographic literature; cf. S. Gandz, Osiris vii (1939), 305- 306. Concerning the supposedly accurate oral transmission of the Vedas see Ong, Orality and Literacy 65-66; Street, Literacy in Theory and Practice 98. Powerful memories among the sixteenth-century Incas: A. Seppilli, La memoria e l'assenza. Tradizione orale e civilta della scrittura nell'America dei Conquistadores (Bologna, 1979), 57- 63.
V. "Mnemnonik," cols. 2264-65. 20. 88. 21. For feats of text memorization attributed to early Christians see below, p. 3°1. 22. On methods of quotation see provisionally W. C. Helmbold & E. N. O'Neil, Plutarch's Quotations (Baltimore, 1959), viii-ix. That modern exactness was not required fits the fact that the illiterate Yugoslav epic singer Demo Zogic told an informant that he had repeated "the same song, word for word" when in a literal sense he had done nothing of the kind; A. B. , 1960), 27; cf.