By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology
The hot box of toxicogenomics provides a most likely robust set of instruments to raised comprehend the wellbeing and fitness results of exposures to toxicants within the atmosphere. on the request of the nationwide Institute of Environmental health and wellbeing Sciences, the nationwide study Council assembled a committee to spot some great benefits of toxicogenomics, the demanding situations to attaining them, and strength methods to overcoming such demanding situations. The record concludes that understanding the opportunity of toxicogenomics to enhance public health and wellbeing judgements would require a concerted attempt to generate facts, utilize current facts, and research facts in new ways--an attempt requiring investment, interagency coordination, and information administration suggestions.
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29 Toxicogenomic Technologies BOX 2-1 Experimental Details of Transcriptome Profiling with Microarrays TmRNA extracted from cell or tissue samples is prepared for microarray analysis by PCR-based amplification (Hardiman 2004). A fluorescent dye (or biotin for Affymetrix microarrays) is incorporated into the amplified RNA sequences. Two-color arrays involve fluorescently labeling paired samples (control versus experimental) with different dyes (see Figure 2-3). The amplified, labeled sequences, termed “targets,” are then hybridized to the microarrays.
For example, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS (MALDI-MS) has been used to simultaneously analyze multiple products of primer-extension reactions (Gut 2004). A more highly multiplexed 26 Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies approach is the combination of tag-based array technology with primer extension for genotyping (Phillips et al. 2003; Zhang et al. 2004). The ultimate approach for SNP discovery is individual whole-genome sequencing. Although not yet feasible, rapidly advancing technology makes this approach the logical objective for SNP discovery in the future.
The convergence of genome sequencing and genotyping technologies will eventually enable whole-genome sequences of individuals to be analyzed. Advances in genotyping technologies 15 Introduction (see Chapter 2) allow the simultaneous assessment of multiple variants across the whole genome in large populations rather than just single or several gene polymorphisms. Transcriptomic technologies (or gene expression profiling) measure mRNA expression in a highly parallel assay system, usually using microarrays.