By Bengt-Ake Lundvall, Patarapong Intarakumnerd, Jan Vang
This complete e-book captures the transition of Asian nationwide innovation structures within the period of the worldwide studying economic climate. The luck of Asian economies (first Japan, then Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and, extra lately, China and India) has made it tempting to seem for ‘an Asian version of development’. even though, the energy of Asian improvement lies much less in options that reproduce winning nationwide structures of innovation and extra within the capability for institutional switch to open up new improvement trajectories with larger emphasis on wisdom and studying. The decide on team of participants display that even if there are vital variations between Asian international locations by way of institutional set-ups aiding innovation, govt rules and commercial constructions, they percentage universal transitional procedures to deal with the globalizing studying economic climate. With robust implications for coverage makers, Asia’s Innovation platforms in Transition might be of significant curiosity to teachers and postgraduate scholars in addition to nationwide and foreign coverage companies.
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Additional info for Asia's Innovation Systems in Transition (New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation.)
The present chapter oﬀers some conceptual thoughts on this and points out, using practical examples from the region, how it is possible for countries to catch up with knowledge-based competition and start to build the necessary national innovation systems. In the ﬁrst section I will argue that there is a strong rationale for strengthening the knowledge base of the Asian economies, and I will summarize some ﬁndings from recent publications on innovation that demonstrate its systemic character and then go on to discuss 21 22 Asia’s innovation systems in transition the implications for latecomer industrialization.
10 The leading nations of the Asian Miracle, South Korea and Taiwan, were highly successful despite being poorly endowed with natural resources. Hence, though geography matters, it would be a mistake to see it as destiny. Based on this brief discussion of the relevance of clustering, factor costs and natural resources, we can identify analytically three ideal types of location: ● ● ● knowledge-based locations whose competitive advantages and specialization patterns rest on an accumulation of highly speciﬁc production factors and interactions and can therefore not be explained adequately by classical trade theory;11 labour-cost-based locations whose competitive advantages rest mainly on price advantages from (unskilled) labour; natural-resource-based locations.
It must be possible to trace individual batches of production back throughout the whole value chain in order to identify sources of irregularities. This may require complex systems to document any product movement, use of identiﬁcation tags, often including bar-coding technology; this in turn requires that all actors involved in a value chain agree upon certain procedures including information, communication and accreditation standards. In some cases the data to be handled may be quite complex, requiring specialized electronic data interchange software; processing, sophisticated packaging and other value-adding activities are becoming more important; as speciﬁc consumer preferences gain importance, product diﬀerentiation increases, intangible characteristics (like ‘organically grown’, ‘farm grown’ or ‘traded fairly’) become distinguishing features that add value to the product.