By S. Amsterdamski
Polish philosophy of technological know-how has been the beneficiary of 3 strong artistic streams of clinical and philosophical idea. First and fore so much was once the Lwow-Warsaw institution of Polish analytical philosophy based through Twardowski and persevered of their numerous methods by means of Les niewski, Lukasiewicz, and Tarski, the nice mathematical and logical philosophers, through Kotarbinski, the most special instructor, public determine, and culturally influential thinker of the inter-war and post-war interval, and by way of Ajdukiewicz, the linguistic thinker who used to be intellectually sympathetic with the anti-irrationalist (as he may say), logistic and meta-theoretical inquiries of the Vienna Circle. moment used to be self reliant and energetic Polish Marxism, with its high-quality improvement of social study lower than Krzywicki, a social anthropologist and more youthful modern of Engels, after which after the warfare the economist Lange, the philosophers Schaff, Kolakowski, Baczko, and so forth. eventually there was a variety of philosophical, clinical and humanistic pupil send which lends its a variety of characteristics to the certainty of either the common sense of technological know-how and the old state of affairs of the sciences: we point out purely that fab and humane physicist Infeld, the phenomenologist with deep epistemological curiosity Ingarden, the historian of clinical rules Zawirski, the historian of philosophy and aesthetics Tatarkiewicz, and the mathematical logicians similar to Mostowski and Szaniawski.
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Additional resources for Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science
9 It should be perhaps noticed that some authors, for example, H. Mehlberg,lO try to combine both criteria (of confirmability and falsifiability), and assume that the scientific status of a statement depends upon the possibility of their confirmation or falsification. III Despite the differences among the aforementioned solutions ofthe problem of demarcation, they have some common features that are worthy of notice. First and foremost, all of them are inspired by the idea of a demarcation of science which would guarantee that scientific status will be attributed only to those statements which are susceptible to the verdict 28 CHAPTER II of experiment.
He also analyses how scientists really proceed, but the goal at which he aims is not an analysis of the conscious or unconscious goals of scientific enterprise, but the formulation of methodological norms concerning how science should be done and how rationally to proceed in view of goals that science has to aim at. "19 He stresses that the methodological rules he proposes are consequences of his normative criterion of demarcation. 2o One problem, however, is clear. On the grounds of a descriptive methodology of science, no criterion of demarcation can be formulated.
Whenever it appears to us that we may answer this question, we are, in fact, wrong. We simply do not perceive that we are either introducing into language a normative definition of the type 'by the term science we mean this or that' or 'we shall call science this or that', or we report on a particular linguistic usage of the term and state how it was used in a particular period of time. In the first case our answer has the character of a linguistic convention. Such conventions are in common use in all the domains of knowledge whenever a clear definition is needed.