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2a). If the water level rises above the top of the waterway opening, then the maximum head difference may occur between the centre of the opening at section 2 (where recovery of the velocity head occurs) and section 3. The latter may be of interest with respect to hydrostatic loading of the structure. The piezometric head loss is the difference in the elevation of the water surface between two points, which must be specified. With a constant bed Page 42 slope as in the diagrams, the fall in bed level depends upon the distance between the two points.

R. (1993) Evaluating Scour at Bridges, 2nd edn. Publication no. FHWA-IP-90–017, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, National Highways Institute/Federal Highways Administration, McLean, VA. Ruddock, E. (1979) Arch Bridges and Their Builders 1735–1835, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. W. (1976) Bridge failures. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part 1, 60, August, 367–382. W. (1977) Why do bridges fail? Civil Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, November, 58–62.

In real situations the bed is often irregular so it is better to work in terms of the elevation above a datum (such as ordnance datum) as in Fig. 3. This shows diagrammatically the longitudinal profile at a bridge site resulting from uniform flow: that is, when the flow in the channel without the bridge is constant at the normal depth (YN) as calculated from the Manning equation, for example. For uniform flow to occur the discharge must be constant, and the channel, within a sufficiently long reach, must have a uniform cross-section, a uniform surface roughness and a uniform gradient.

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